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(482) Thought: Check and circle marks in test papers [調べる]

Thought: Check and circle marks in test papers.
How the world people mark the test papers of students.

There are several ways to mark correct and wrong answers in test papers in the world.

This picture shows how to mark answers in test papers in the world.

世界の正しい間違いS.jpg

In Japan  for correct answers, × for wrong ones.
In Philippines √ for correct answers, × for wrong ones.
In the USA √ for correct answers, × for wrong ones.
In China √ for correct answers, for wrong ones.
In Vietnam D for correct answers, S for wrong ones.

   I found this information in a Kanji teaching materials for Filipino students in Japan, about three years ago. I was very surprised to know that in China, marks for correct and wrong answers are totally opposite to Japan.

I’ve seen my elementary school student’s Kenyan father used √ mark for correct answers in his quiz sheet.?

   Next picture is from a question and answer site for anime and manga fans. The question is,

“While watching anime, especially ones that focus on slice-of-life or high school, I often come across a test paper containing a character’s score. However, it is interesting to note that correct answers are circled while the wrong ones are ticked. As far as I know, ticks are for correct answers and circles are incorrect answers. Does this mirror how Japan marks the test papers of students? If so why?”
sY3yZ.jpg

He is surprised to know that the Japanese way is the opposite from how teachers in most western culture to do it.

In Japan √ and is also used to mark for incorrect answers.
UyfAe.jpg
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nice!(0)  コメント(0) 

(475) Kidney Dialysis [調べる]

Kidney Dialysis
  I was asked to help an American tourist communicate to a doctor when he has dialysis treatment at M clinic, here in Matsuyama. Ive been a volunteer helper for non-Japanese people speaking English, who live in or visit Matsuyama city. Today Id like to talk about this experience and a little information about the dialysis.


  Do you know what kidney dialysis is? I didnt know anything about dialysis so I did a little research on it on the internet and I met him on April 3rd.


 


1 hdf2.png
PIC. 2: HD HDF  Hemodialysis   Hemodiafiltration


 Dialysis is a form of treatment for patients with kidney failure as a result of kidney disease. Those patients experience a constant build up of toxins as a part of everyday life (eating, drinking, exercising, etc,).  Those would normally be extracted and excreted by their kidneys, but they have left the building, they use dialysis machines to do much of this job for them. M clinic uses on-line HDF machines.


2 online matsushita.gif
Pic. 3: automatic dialysis machine GC-110N


The dialysis treatment can be administered in a specialized clinic. Dialysis in a clinic is usually performed three times a week, and last around four hours. Patients travel from home to the clinic, where they are taken care of by specialized doctors and trained personnel throughout the entire treatment. When not at the clinic, patients can lead as normal lives as possible.


On Monday, April 3 at 8:30, I was waiting for him at M clinic with a woman of M Center who was very worried about his arrival. She tried to contact him the day before but failed.


We got a phone from the nearby hospital. It said that he got to the wrong hospital with his mother. He finally arrived at 9:30, one hour late. He brought a medical letter about his dialysis treatment in the U.S.


We went upstairs. There were a spacious dialysis treatment room, which had about 35 beds, and a lounge, where patients family or friends can wait for them. But his mother and I were the only people in the lounge.


At the beginning of the treatment, I entered the dialysis room with him. His bed was the very end of the row of beds. About twenty patients had already started the dialysis treatment there. At the entrance of the room he was weighed on the scale. The doctor decided how much water must be removed.


3 onlineHDF.jpg
Pic. 4: HDF diagram


He seemed to get used to the treatment. He replied to the doctor he didnt have anemia. Two needles were stuck on blood vessels of his left arm. These needles were connected to the dialysis machine by tubes. One was for taking out his blood to the machine, and the other was for returning the blood to his blood vessel. When the nurse taped the needles on his arm, he took out his own adhesive tape to use. He said, Im allergic to other tapes. He had been having dialysis for seven years, now 48 years old. He had two tiny lumps on his left forearm.


4 mp_cl_ketsueki_zenonline.png
Pic.5: HDF picture & diagram


During the dialysis treatment he can listen to music with earphones or enjoy DVD on the small display above his bed. After explaining to him I left him and got out of the room. I spent time with his mother talking about various things from family members to President Trump. I didnt get bored while waiting his treatment was completed. Time pasted so soon.


Just before noon, I was called by the personnel. When I got to the patient, he looked a little bit weak. He complained something to the personnel. I could hear him say dry and cramp. I asked him, Are you thirsty?  He moved his legs and his right hand to his chest. I translate his complain to the personnel.


5 hdf 除水.png
Pic. 6: HDF drain water


 He quickly understood the complain. He stopped taking out water from his blood and checked his blood pressure. He also increased replacement fluid. His treatment completed 1:40 pm safely.


I was very surprised at three things. First, the American tourist looked for the clinic to have dialysis treatment after arriving Japan. How brave, positive and active he was! Second, the number of people having kidney dialysis because of kidney failure is bigger than I had thought. While waiting for the American at the clinic, I saw many Japanese patients arrive one after another by taxi. Third, todays kidney dialysis machines can do several complicated work automatically. HDF(Haemodiafiltration) machine simulates the work of the kidney very well. I really hope further development in kidney dialysis treatment for patients with kidney failure.
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(465) “a bar of soap / a cake of soap ?” #2 [調べる]

“a bar of soap / a cake of soap ?” #2

 

what do you think of the following?

 

When you go to the grocery store, please buy ( ) soap for me.

(A) a piece of (B) a (C) a bar of (D) a pair of


  The right answer is (C) a bar of.


 

Is this the only right answer? I remember that I was taught “a cake of soap” is right. It was more than
40 years ago at school in Japan. But the strange thing is since then I’ve never
heard of this phrase being told, nor read in books in my life.

 

On the contrary, I often see “a bar of soap” in place of “a cake of soap”.

The latest example I read is from a picture book of Miffy.

 

She took a bar of soap,

And her soft yellow sponge.

s miffy soap.jpg

 


Which is right, “a bar of soap” or “a cake of soap”?


 

Both are right. But there is a big difference between the two. The difference is much larger number of people use “a bar of soap” than “a cake of soap”


Yahoo Japan 知恵袋 2009/9/2015

the_round_square_triangleさん searched on "A ...???... of soap".

アメリカ国内の英語サイトのみを対象に検索すると

http://search.yahoo.co.jp/search?_adv_prop=web&x=op&ei=UTF-8&fr=top...

 

検索結果(アメリカ国内の英語サイトのみ)

a bar of soap 865,000

a piece of soap 39,300

a cake of soap 28,600

a block of soap 993

a tablet of soap 471

 


WordReference.com has many comments on this question.

I show you two of them.


 

Kelly B said:

A quick curious google on "cake of soap" yields results from Australia, mostly.

 

Ferntree Gully, Aug 24, 2006 Australian Australia replied to this:

This is a strange combination for us Aussies.

 We use a cake of soap in the bathroom and a bar of soap in the laundry.

 I have not purchased a bar of soap recently but memory is that the bar of laundry or hard soap is
shaped like a gold bar. It is angular and has sharp edges.

 Cakes of bathroom or soft soap are softer in shape with curved sides and blunt edges.

a20bar20of2020soap.jpga20bar20of2020soap203.jpg


 

padredeocho, Aug 25, 2006 United States said:

In the USA, we would never say cake of soap. If I were leaving the house, and my wife said, Could you pick
up some soap?
I would assume she probably meant a pack of soap bars for the bath and shower. If she wanted any other kind of soap, she would tell me what kind, i.e. dishwashing soap, handsoap, etc.

 


(459) Why is Kannon popular? [調べる]

 

Why is Kannon popular? 
 
11faced パンフ.jpg
Juichimen Kannon, Taisan-ji temple, Matsuyama Ehime
 
Conclusion: Reasons of Kannon's popularity.

 

・ Kannon is a Bodhisattva more familiar to us than Buddah Amida.         
・ Kannon can appear in many different forms to save people.                   
・ Kannon can save us in this world, this is a benefit gained in this world.

 




Buddhism for the Common Folk.

The three deities Amida, Kannon, and Jizō, became especially popular among the common folk during the Kamakura Period (1185 - 1333 AD), and today remain the bedrock of Buddhism for the common folk.


◆1. Amida for the coming life in paradise. ◆
 
amida ritsuzou.jpg 

 


 

◆2. Kannon for salvation in earthly life. ◆

senju kannon.jpg

 



◆3. Jizō for salvation from hell.◆

jizo illustrate.jpg



---A to Z Photo Dictionary Japanese Buddhist Statuary---



1. Buddah Amida 阿弥陀仏


amida-Kamakura.jpg
Amida of Kamakura
Buddha Daibutsu, Kamakura, Japan. This statue, made of bronze, is 11.40 m high and weights 93 t.

THE BUDDHA are those who have attained enlightenment, the ultimate state.

amida taisanji.jpg
Taisanji temple, Matsuyama, Ehime

At the belltower of Taisanji-temple you can see 25 Bodhisattva who descend from heaven with Amida to welcome the dying soul
of the faithful into Amida’s Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss (Jp. =
極楽 Gokuraku; also called Jōdo 浄土)


2. Kannon


mokuzou_11menkannon.jpg
Taisan-ji temple, Matsuyama, Ehime

2.1. What is Kannon?
11faced パンフ.jpg

2.1.1. TRANSLATION.

One who sees / hears all.

The Sino-Japanese term Kannon 観音 (Chinese = Guānyīn) literally means watchful listening, and is
often translated as
one who sees / hears all. This is indeed the task of the compassionate Kannon to witness and listen to the prayers and cries of those in difficulty in the earthly realm, and to help them achieve salvation.

---A to Z Photo Dictionary Japanese Buddhist Statuary---

2.1.2. SCRIPTURAL BASIS.

 Kannon is a Bodhisattva (Jp. = Bosatsu), one who achieves enlightenment but postpones Buddhahood until all can be saved. Kannon is mentioned in numerous Mahayana sutra (religious texts), especially the Lotus Sutra 法華経 (Hokekyō), which was translated into Chinese by Kumārajīva (Jp. = Kumarajū 鳩摩羅什, 350 - 410),

---A to Z Photo Dictionary Japanese Buddhist Statuary---

2.1.3. MEMBER OF PURE LAND SECTS

In Mahayana Buddhism throughout Asia, Kannon is the most important of Amidas two main
attendants (kyōji
脇侍). The other is Seishi Bosatsu. In Japan, the three appear in a popular grouping known as the Amida Sanzon (lit. =Amida Triad), with Amida in the center, Seishi (representing wisdom) on the right, and Kannon (representing compassion) on the left.

2.1.4. KANNON PILGRIMAGES

Kannon can appear in many different forms to save people. The Lotus Sutra (Hokekyō 法華経), one of the most popular Mahayana scriptures throughout Asia owing to its message that anyone,
whether male or female, has the potential to attain Buddhahood, mentions 33 (thirty-three) forms that Kannon assumes when aiding sentient beings. In modern Japan, Kannon’s 33 forms are the basis for hundreds of Kannon Pilgrimage Circuits.

2.1.5. ESOTERIC KANNON FORMS.

 In addition to the 33 Forms of Kannon, this deity also comes in six salvific forms to save all sentient beings trapped in the Six Realms of Karmic Rebirth (the cycle of suffering, the cycle of samsara).

2.2. A story behind Taisan-ji temple.
kannon kyougamori.jpg

There is a story in Taisan-ji temple showing Kannon’s power to save the people who prayed to Kannon. This is a benefit gained in this world through observance of the Buddhist teachings, in Japanese 現世利益.
oonami wasen.jpg

A certain merchant from Kyushu was sailing to the Osaka area to transport lumber his ship was caught in a terrible storm near Takahama on the other side of the mountain where Taisa-ji temple stands. He prayed to Kannon and soon a five-colored beam of the light appeared from the mountain top. By this light, he was able to land safely.

 mano-chouja.jpg
Mano-chouja, a merchant in Kyushu

2.3 Juichimen Kannon 十一面観

11faced Kyouɡamori.jpg

Literally 11-Headed Kannon, or 11-Faced Kannon. One of the Six Kannon. This beloved esoteric (tantric) form of Kannon is depicted with eleven heads atop its crown. There are various explanations for the eleven heads.

2.3.1. Why 11-faced?

On a folk level,

1) some say it is symbolic of shedding sweetness and mercy in all directions,

2) others that Kannon became so distressed after witnessing the sufferings of the world that  .

But the most plausible explanation is that

1) the lower ten heads represent the Ten Stages of the Bodhisattva Path (steps required to attain enlightenment).

2) The 11th head, located at the very center in the highest position, represents the 11th stage, Buddhahood, the final and ultimate result for those following the Bodhisattva Path.

3) The 11th head, moreover, is identified as Amida Buddha, the central deity in Japan’s Pure Land sects -- for in these sects, Kannon is considered an active emanation of Amida.

---A to Z Photo Dictionary Japanese Buddhist Statuary---


3. Jizo

jizo hikisaki.jpg
Hikisaki jizo in Taisan-ji temple

Jizō is a Bodhisattva (Jp. Bosatsu), one who achieves enlightenment but postpones Buddhahood until all can be saved.

Jizō’s traditional roles are to save us from the torments/demons of hell, to bring fertility, to protect children, and
to rant longevity -- thus Jizō is often decked in red.
jizo nearby2.jpg

Parents cloth Jizō statues in hopes that Jizō will cloth the dead child in his protection.

The dead children are sent to Sai no Kawara, the riverbed of souls in purgatory, where they are
forced to remove their clothes and to pray for salvation by building small stone towers, piling pebble upon pebble, in the hopes of climbing out of limbo into Buddha’s paradise. Sorrowing parents pray Jizō to help the suffering soul of their deceased child.

This is why everywhere in Japan, at busy intersections, at roadsides, in graveyards, in temples, and along hiking trails, one will find statues of Jizō Bosatsu decked in clothing, wearing a red
or white cap and bib.
jizo gran fuji2.jpg

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(457) The origin of Kuwabara Kuwabara (桑原 桑原) [調べる]

The origin of Kuwabara Kuwabara (桑原 桑原)
  Studying the etymology 1) of Kuwabara is very interesting. Saying Kuwabara kuwabara is a customary action to ward off 2) bad luck or lightning strike. One of famous explanations is that Kuwabara is the name of Sugawara Michizane’s territory where lightning had never struck for unknown reasons. This is why Kuwabara kuwabara works against lightning strike. Another explanation is lightning god doesn't like mulberry fields, that is Kuwabara in Japanese. kaminari.jpg  There are two ways to trace a Japanese word Kuwabara to its origin. One is studying the meaning of its kanji. This example is Kuwabara means mulberry field bla bla bla. The other is tracing its sound. Korean words guba-bara sounds very similar to Kuwabara in Japanese. 

  Guba-bara3) in Korean means please understand my circumstances and have mercy on me. This is the same meaning word as Kuwabara kuwabara when Japanese people want to ward off bad luck. This guba-bara in Korean changed into Kuwabara in Japanese.
  I don’t know if this is a true origin or not, but there seems to be several similar sounding words between Japanese and Korean, such as Noppo in Japanese for Nob-da in Korean meaning tall. And Aho in Japanese for pabo in Korean meaning stupid. There might be some relation between Japanese and Korean.

 

(1) etymology: 語源
(2) ward off: 防ぐ、近づかせない
(3) 桑原に音の似た韓国語、出典 李寧熙著『フシギな日本語』fushigina nihongo.jpg
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(456) 太山寺 本堂 [調べる]

Main hall of Taisan-ji temple
taisanji hondo1.jpgPic.taisanji hondo1
  Taisan-ji Temple is the 52nd one of Shikoku Pilgrimage of 88 temples. This is the main hall where the main images are enshrined. Honzon (principal object of worship at this temple) is Eleven-faced Kannon (Goddess of Mercy). The building was rebuilt in 1305 and now designated as a National Treasure. This main hall is one of the biggest wooden building in Japan. The white plaster mound under the building was typical of the Indian style. The plaster protects from dampness and keeps the building cool. It houses seven images of the eleven-faced Kannon which has been designated as an Important Cultural Properties by the Japanese government. All were donated by emperors. The one presented by Emperor Shomu, in the Nara Era, is placed in the center, and can only be seen once every sixty years. The three images placed on either side can be seen on October 17 every year.
taisanji hondo2.jpgPic. Taisanji hondo2taisanji_su3.jpg

本堂(国宝)
四国霊場第52番札所、鎌倉時代(嘉元3年、1305)に建てられたもので桁行七間(16.38メートル)梁間九間(20.91メートル)、屋根入母屋造り、本瓦葺きで、木造建築では県下最大の堂々たる建物である。その構えにふさわしく、木組は大きく柱はすべて円柱、手法は和様であるが、天竺様式や唐様式を取り入れ鎌倉時代の名工の作品で稀にみる傑作である。厨子(ずし)1)のある内陣(ないじん)2)土壇(どだん)3)であるのは日本でただ一つと言われている。
(1) 厨子(ずし):神仏の像を安置する二枚とびらの堂の形のはこ
(2) 内陣(ないじん):寺院の本堂の奥にあって、神体や本尊を安置してある所
(3) 土壇(どだん):土で築いた壇

(床は内陣のみ床を張らない土間とし、それ以外の部分は床を張るが、これは天台密教の仏堂に多い形式だ。また、仏像を納める厨子は土間に築かれた土壇に乗るが、これは当時の密教寺院としては非常に珍しいものである。)
juichimen.jpgPic. Juichimen
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(455) 太山寺鐘楼堂 [調べる]

Bell tower in Taisan-ji temple
bell tower.jpgPic. Bell towertemple bell.jpg

  Rebuilt in 1655 it has wooden ‘skirt’ typical of1) 13th century temple architecture. The year 1383 is inscribed2) on the temple bell of the bell tower. On the first floor are three paintings depicting3) the Buddhist paradise (heaven) and hell. In the left side paradise scene you can see the Buddha Amida4) coming down to lead those who pray sincerely into paradise.
heaven.jpgPic. heaven

  In Japanese mythology, Enma-O or Enma Dai-O judges souls in Meido, the kingdom of the waiting dead. Those deemed5) too horrible are sent to hell. You can see Enma Dai-O, King of hell, in the center picture. Beside him, there is a special mirror which can project every moment during the lifetime of the dead standing in front of it. Enma Dai-O judges with the mirror if the dead were right-minded or not before its death.
enma.jpgPic. enma
(1) typical of:~の特色をよく示している
(2) inscribed:〔板・石などに文字を〕刻み込む、彫る
(3) depicting:〔絵・映像などで〕~を描写する[描く・表現する]
(4) Buddha Amida:阿弥陀仏
(5) deem:~だと判断する
hell1.jpgpic. Hell1

 

太山寺鐘楼堂に画かれた地獄絵図(愛媛県松山市)
江戸時代、明暦元年(1655)に再建され、袴腰(はかまごし)と呼ばれる曲線の美しい建物で、中に、永徳3(1383)の銘のある梵鐘がある。壁面いっぱいに、地獄、極楽絵図が描かれている。閻魔王の法廷には浄玻璃鏡(じょうはりのかがみ、じょうはりきょう)という鏡が設置されていて、死者の生前の善悪の行為をのこらず映し出すという。
hell2.jpgPic. Hell2
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(454) Child marriage [調べる]

Child marriage
child marriage.jpg 

I belonged to Matsuyama silver chorus last year. When I was singing one of Japanese children’s songs, Akatombo meaning Red Dragonfly I found child marriage in its words of the third verse. It goes like十五で姐やは 嫁に行き お里のたよりも絶えはてたMy baby-sitter got married when she was 15, and even the news of her country home ceased completely. In Japan child marriage once existed.

I learned about child marriage in Kenya two years ago from my Kenyan friend. In Kenya more than 25% of girls get married before they are 18 years. This affect their education and their future.
赤とんぼ.jpg

I looked up child marriage on the internet and I knew it is fuelled by gender inequality, poverty, traditions, and insecurity.  The site says that globally, the rates of child marriage are slowly declining but progress isn't happening fast enough. In Japan according to the statistics, in 1899
(Meiji 32) 33.9% of girls get married before they were 19 years, and 26.1% in 1921 (Taisho 10). 


(453) Hikisaki Jiozo (at Taisanji) [調べる]

(453) Hikisaki Jioo (Torn Jizo) 太山寺 (愛媛県 松山市)
DSC_0594.JPG

  This stone statue is HIkisaki Jizo. Jizo is one of the most beloved of all Japanese divinities1). Jizo is portrayed2) as a monk-- shaven head, no adornments3), no royal attire4), nearly always dressed in the simple robe (kesa) of a monk. But this jizo is a little bit different from usual ones. It has rouged lips. Can you guess why? The rouged lips symbolize the women’s beauty. And Hikisaki Jizo means torn Jizo. There was a very sad story about a beautiful young woman.
  Long ago two men fell in love with the maid. The two men lived in separate places. One is a Sumo wrestler and the other is the strongest man in his district. The two men
argued over5) who should get the woman but they couldn’t decide. The woman was so warmhearted6) that she didn’t want to hurt one by choosing the other so she said, “Why don’t you each take one arm and pull?” The two men pulled her with all their strength from both sides. The poor woman was torn in two. And she passed away. The people of the villages felt sorry for her and also admired her gentle nature. They made a statue of Jizo to pray for the repose7) of her soul. They kindly put it on top of the
mountain pass from where she could see two places from the two men came. Now it stands beside a bottom of stairs to Sanmon of Taisanji.

(1) divinity: [d
ɪvínəṭi]可算名詞 (異教の).
(2) portray:
[pɔɚtréɪpɔː]~を絵画・彫刻・映像で〕表現する、描く
(3) adornments: [
ədɔ́ːrnmənt]装飾品
(4) attire: [
ətáiər]〔儀式などの〕衣装、盛装
(5) argued over:
言い争う
(6) warmhearted:
心の温かい、心に温かみがある、思いやりのある、情の厚い、
(7) repose: [ripóuz]
静けさ、安らぎ、安心、のどかさ、平和

DSC_0595.JPG
ひきさき地蔵のお話し(太山寺パンフレットより)

昔、太山寺のお茶屋さんに美しい女中がおったそうな。その娘を見そめた男が二人。一人は古三津(ふるみつ)の相撲取りさん、もう一人は和気浜(わけはま)の力じまん。ある日お相撲さんが父親とともに「娘さんを嫁にほしいと」と頼みに来て連れて帰ったんじゃと。ところが、そのすぐ後から力じまんの男も「嫁にほしい」とやって来たんじゃ。「今さっき古三津の男が連れて帰ったとこじゃがなあ。」これを聞くとすぐに飛び出していって峠でやっと追い付いてな、ところが二人ともゆずらんので、娘は「うち(私)をひっぱって勝負をつけてつか。」娘はどちらの男も好きじゃったんだな。じゃが力持ち同士が引っぱったんで、とうとう娘は死んでしもうたんよ。村の人たちは、やさしくて美しかった娘のために古三津も見え、和気浜も見える峠の頂にお地蔵さんを作って祀ってあげたんじゃと。そのお地蔵さん、今は太山寺の山門のとこにおってな、村の人は毎日お参りしよるそうな。いつの頃か、みんなは「ひきさき地蔵さん」と言うてな。
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(445) Four Heavenly Kings [調べる]

(445) Four Heavenly Kings

I visited Taisan temple last month. I’d like to talk about Sanmon of the Temple.  This gate is called Shitenno-mon too, because four heavenly kings are placed in this gate. Shitenno means Four Heavenly Kings. They are the Buddhist protective deities. (愛媛県 松山市 太山寺 Taisan temple, Matsuyama, Ehime )

0.sanmon.jpg
Pic. San-mon

I have three things to say today.

1. Position of the four statues in Sanmon
2. Condition of the statues
3. Shitenno used in a figurative sense

1. Position of the four statues

map taisanji.jpg
Pic. Map taisanji

Four Heavenly Kings are placed like this. Four statues stand clockwise in the four directions.
持国天 Jikoku-ten is in the south-east, he is the guardian of the east.
増長天 Zōjō-ten is in the south-west, he is the guardian of the South.
広目天 Kōmoku-ten is in the north-west, he is the guardian of the West.
多聞天 (毘沙門天) Tamon-ten (Bishamon-ten) is in the north-east, he is the guardian of the North. Old people made a play on words “JI-ZOU-KO-TA 地蔵買うた” to memorize the order of Four Heavenly Kings's arrangement.

1.jikokuten.JPG
Pic. 1. jikokuten

2. zojoten.JPG
Pic. 2. Zojoten

3.komokuten.JPG
Pic. 3. Koumokuten

4.bishamonten.JPG
Pic. 4. tamokuten

2. Condition of the statues

The statues are in very bad condition. Komoku-ten’s face came off at some time after last Feb. 12.
I found another damage in Jikoku-ten, too.

3.201502121525141b4.jpg
2015.02.12
 
3.komokuten.JPG
2015.11.26. Komokuten

1.201502121525507d7.jpg
2015.02.12

1.jikokuten.JPG
2015.11.26. jikokuten

3. Shitenno used in a figurative sense
Shitenno also means the big [best] four. This reminds me of Sugata Sanshiro. Sanshiro was reputed to be one of the big [best] four judoka belonging to the Kodokan. This is the poster of Kurosawa’s movie “Sugata Sanshro”. First released in Japan on 25 March 1943 by Toho film studios, the film was eventually released in the United States on 28 April 1974.
Sugata_Sanshiro_poster.jpg
Pic. sugata
*

追記
持国天 Jikoku-ten is the guardian of the 
east. His name means "He who maintains the state" or “Watcher of the Lands”

増長天 Zōjō-ten is the guardian of the South. King of the south and one who causes good growth of roots.

広目天 Kōmoku-ten is the king of the west and one who sees all.

多聞天 (毘沙門天) Tamon-ten (Bishamon-ten) is the chief of the four kings and protector of the north.


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